This latest quiz is focused on IPv6 with a bias to Cisco Systems. These questions are what one could expect on a CCNP or CCIE exam across various tracks. Enjoy!
IPv6 Quiz - Cisco Bias
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What is the minimum MTU size that is required for an IPv6 packet?
Question 1 Explanation:
While the minimum supported MTU size was 576 Bytes with IPv4, with IPv6 this minimum has increased to 1280 Bytes.
What is the interface configuration mode command that is used to enable RIPng?
ipv6 router ripng
ipv6 ripng enable
ipv6 rip enable
ipv6 router rip
Question 2 Explanation:
RIP (like other IPv6 routing protocols) is enabled on the interface, this is done with the ipv6 rip name enable command. The ipv6 router rip name command is used to change process-wide variables (like maximum paths). Another example is OSPF. This is configured under an interface with ipv6 ospf 1 area 0, for example. Notice the process ID is set to 1 and the area is the backbone (0).
Which of the following command would correctly permit SSH traffic from any IPv6 source to the 2001::/64 network?
permit tcpv6 2001::/64 any eq ssh
permit tcpv6 any 2001::/64 eq ssh
permit tcp 2001::/64 any eq ssh
permit tcp any 2001::/64 eq ssh
Question 3 Explanation:
IPv6 ACL statements are very similar to IPv4 ACL statements except wildcard marks are not used; in this case the permit tcp any 2001::/64 eq ssh statement accomplishes the goals, allowing traffic from any source to pass to the 2000::/64 network over SSH.
What is the command that is used to enable an IPv6 DHCP Relay Agent?
ipv6 helper-address ipv6-address
ipv6 forwarding-address ipv6-address
ipv6 dhcp relay ipv6-address
ipv6 dhcp relay destination ipv6-address
Question 4 Explanation:
The need for a DHCP relay agent with IPv6 is the same as it is with IPv4; the configuration is slightly different but the operation is similar at a high level. The ipv6 dhcp relay destination ipv6-address command is used on the router that connects to the client segment and points to the unicast address of the DHCP server.
What is the name of the feature that can be used to translate between an outside IPv6 global prefix to an inside unique local or separate global prefix?
Question 5 Explanation:
The Network Prefix Translation (NPTv6) feature is used to translate between an outside IPv6 global prefix to an inside unique local or separate global prefix.
Which of the following DNS record types resolves hostnames into IPv6 addresses?
Question 6 Explanation:
A Hosts (AAAA) record is used to resolve a Fully Qualified Domain Name (FQDN) to a IPv6 address.
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Whether you are pursuing your CCNA, CCNP, CCIE, or many other Cisco Certifications, a deep knowledge of RSTP is critical. In this post, we will detail key facts for you regarding this Layer 2 loop prevention system.
802.1w (RSTP) is an evolution of the classic 802.1D (STP) protocol
802.1D tried to speed things up with the additions of UplinkFast, BackboneFast, and PortFast; the UplinkFast and BackboneFast features are now essentially built into RSTP, while PortFast is still a feature you enable in RSTP if desired
802.1w can also revert back to 802.1D in order to interoperate with legacy bridges on a per-port basis
With 802.1D, once in the forwarding state, there is no way to tell from the port state whether the port is root or designated; RSTP decouples the role and the state of a port to address this issue
The 802.1D port states are Disabled, Blocking, Listening, Learning, Forwarding; in 802.1w these are simplified to Discarding, Learning, Forwarding
The port roles are expanded in 802.1w to include Backup and Alternate ports in addition to Root and Designated; these new port roles help implement the features of UplinkFast into the protocol natively
A Backup port receives more useful BPDUs from the same bridge it is on and is a port blocked
An Alternate port receives more useful BPDUs from another bridge and is a port blocked
RSTP now uses all six bits of the flag byte that remain in order to perform – encoding the role and state of the port that originates the BPDU and handling the proposal/agreement mechanism
The RSTP BPDU is now of type 2, version 2; legacy bridges must drop this new BPDU; this makes it easy for an 802.1w bridge to detect legacy bridges connected to it
BPDUs are sent every hello-time, and not simply relayed anymore’
BPDUs are now used as a keep-alive mechanism between bridges; a bridge considers that it loses connectivity to its direct neighbor root or designated bridge if it misses three BPDUs in a row; this fast aging of the information allows quick failure detection
To natively support the BackboneFast type behavior, RSTP accepts inferior BPDUs; when a bridge receives inferior information from its designated or root bridge, it immediately accepts it and replaces the one previously stored; this permits fast acceptance of a new Root port in the topology
Rapid transition is the most important feature introduced by 802.1w; RSTP is able to actively confirm that a port can safely transition to the forwarding state without having to rely on any timer configuration; in order to achieve fast convergence on a port, the protocol relies upon two new variables: edge ports and link type
RSTP can only achieve a rapid transition to the forwarding state on edge ports and on point-to-point links; the link type is automatically derived from the duplex mode of a port
A proposal/agreement process in RSTP aids in very convergence
The topology change notification process is overhauled in order to also aid in faster convergence and improve efficiency
For more details on these new features summarized here – check out Understanding Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (802.1w) This document often forms the basis for plenty of RSTP-related written exam questions from CCENT to CCIE. Note that my summary document here covers most of those questions for you, however!