Category Archives: CCNA

Do You Know Your WiFi 802.11 Standards?

CCNA Wireless

So I am putting the finishing touches on my upcoming CCNA Exam Cram for 200-301 and I needed an additional resource for the first of the three Wireless chapters. As a result – enjoy this quick and fun WiFi Quiz on the various 802.11 amendments. Score of 100%? Let me know in the comments of this post and get entered to win a prize!

WiFi Standards Quiz

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Congratulations - you have completed WiFi Standards Quiz.

You scored %%SCORE%% out of %%TOTAL%%.

Your performance has been rated as %%RATING%%


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Link Layer Discovery Protocol (LLDP)

In a previous post, we examined CDP in great detail as it relates to the CCIE written and lab exam. In this post, we will do the same, but for LLDP.

Fibre Channel Port Types

Link Layer Discovery Protocol (LLDP), standardized by the IEEE as part of 802.1ab, enables discovery of nodes, which in turn facilitates future applications of standard management tools such as Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) in multivendor networks. Discovery information includes device identifiers, port identifiers, versions, and other details.

LLDP is unidirectional, operating only in an advertising mode. LLDP does not solicit information or monitor state changes between LLDP nodes. LLDP periodically sends advertisements to a constrained multicast address. Devices supporting LLDP can send information about themselves while they receive and record information about their neighbors. Additionally, devices can choose to turn off the send or receive functions independently. Advertisements are sent out and received on every active and enabled interface, allowing any device in a network to learn about all devices to which it is connected. LLDP and Cisco Discovery Protocol can operate on the same interface.

To enable LLDP globally on your Cisco device, use the global configuration command:

lldp run

To disable LLDP on a specific interface, use the interface command:

no lldp {med-tlv-select tlv receive | transmit

Hold time is the duration that a receiving device should maintain LLDP neighbor information before aging it. Perform this task to define a hold time for an LLDP-enabled device in global configuration mode:

lldp holdtime seconds 

Perform this task in global configuration mode to specify an interval at which the Cisco software sends LLDP updates to neighboring devices:

lldp timer rate 

Cisco Discovery Protocol (CDP)

In this post, we will examine the Cisco Discovery Protocol in some detail. In the next post, we will tackle LLDP.

CDP is a Layer 2, media-independent, and network-independent protocol that runs on Cisco devices and enables networking applications to learn about directly connected devices nearby. This protocol facilitates the management of Cisco devices by discovering these devices, determining how they are configured, and allowing systems using different network-layer protocols to learn about each other.

NX-OS

While it is a Cisco invention, this protocol is so important to so many companies that many of them have adopted it for those devices as well. If the devices do not actively send the protocol, they can at least understand it when receiving it from true Cisco devices.

One reason you might have heard of companies disabling CDP on devices would be a result of security concerns. It is not necessarily a great idea to have network devices describing their properties and even their capabilities to other devices on the network.

Cisco Discovery Protocol is enabled by default. Each device configured for Cisco Discovery Protocol advertises at least one address at which the device can receive messages and sends periodic advertisements to the well-known multicast address 01:00:0C:CC:CC:CC. Devices discover each other by listening at that address. They also listen to messages to learn when interfaces on other devices are up or go down.

Advertisements contain time-to-live information, which indicates the length of time a receiving device should hold Cisco Discovery Protocol information before discarding it. Advertisements supported and configured in Cisco software are sent, by default, every 60 seconds on interfaces that support Subnetwork Access Protocol (SNAP) headers. Cisco devices never forward Cisco Discovery Protocol packets. Cisco devices that support Cisco Discovery Protocol store the information received in a table. Information in this table is refreshed every time an advertisement is received, and information about a device is discarded after three advertisements from that device are missed.

Cisco Discovery Protocol Version 2 provides more intelligent, device-tracking features than those available in Version 1. One of the features available is an enhanced reporting mechanism for more rapid error tracking, which helps to reduce network downtime. Errors reported include mismatched native VLAN IDs (IEEE 802.1Q) on connected ports and mismatched port-duplex states between connected devices. Messages about reported errors can be sent to the console or to a logging server.

Remember, to disable CDP on the entire device, use no cdp run. To disable CDP on a select interface, use no cdp enable under that interface.